The meaning of the word ‘Fortuna’ is derived from ‘fors‘ (luck) and ‘ferre‘ (to bring). The driver looking to the right is an exception (HAFNER, 1938). In short: the ideal world of the modern Fourth Quadrant. including the history of the Roman Republics ————————- 4. The sun-god Sol () was replaced by the emperor during the reign of Emperor Caracalla (211 – 217 AD), son of Septimius Severus. The representation of the emperor-god (in a quadriga) was universally used during the dynasty of Constantius II (337 – 361) (fig. The quadriga was already mentioned in 680 BC as being used in games (HUMPHREY, 1986). Fortune – in its original implication – is related to the verb ‘to bring’: that which is brought. Hadrian’s famous journeys, which were such a striking and significant feature of his reign, became the hallmark of a new order. The Roman continued this tradition and erected special racecourses for horses (fig. These constructions had their heydays between the second and fourth century AD and were called a ‘circus‘. The movement of the wheel was associated (in a dual mind) with the interpretation of fate: ‘what comes up must go down’. Power is the visible version of belief, and can only be active when the material world is close at hand. The topic was virtually absent from the Hellenistic and early imperial period, only to return in the ‘Greek revival’ of Emperor Hadrian and his successors in the first quarter of the second century AD. In the case of the horses of the San Marco in Venice, which are on display in the central arch of the western facade, the sculptures were simply stolen (from Byzantium, after the Venetian crusaders conquered the city in 1204). Musees de Cinquantenaire/Kunstweef Museum, Brussel (HAUTTMANN, 1929); 3. In a manuscript of Ptolemaeus’ ‘‘, Byzantine, 820 AD (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) (KENTON, 1974) And as: Vatican, gr. ‘Pharao’ with ‘Auriga’ and ‘Sol’ with ‘Equi solis‘ join their forces in the pulling of a long open wagon, the ‘Gemmatus currus luxurie’.
Her three symbols – the cornucopia (abundance), the rudder of a ship (to steer the course of life in the right direction) and a ball or a wheel (the cyclic change and the turning of destiny) – pointed to an optimistic approach. Other good specimens are at Tyre (southern Lebanon), Merida (Spain) and Lepcis Magna (Libya). 407 – Chariot races with quadrigae in classical Rome. Denis-church in Paris depicting a medallion with the Ark of the Covenant, placed in a chariot with four wheels (MALE, 1910/1961; fig. Aaron’s staff and the Law of Moses are placed in the ark. The goddess Fortuna Panthea and her wheel are, in a general and historical sense, connected with Fate (fatum) and Moira, and therefore with the relative notions of boundaries in life. 425 – 406 BC The quadriga was a leading theme on the tetra- and decadrachmen minted in Syracuse from the beginning of the fifth century onwards, starting with the tyran Gelon around 485 BC. HAFNER (1938), in his quest to find the roots of the motif, dated a cutted stone with a frontal quadriga from the ‘transitory period between the mycenian and archaic-greek style period’ (Furtwängler) and reckoned this specimen to be the oldest representation of the motif. Helios and his companion, positioned on a quadriga, have sailed through the night from the west to the east. The gods are subordinate, in Greek cultural history as recorded by Homer, by a higher power called Moira. He concluded that the scheme must have been known in the geometric art. Now they leaving the ship for the beginning of a new day’. Hades (Pluto) and Persephone (Proserpina) in a quadriga, pursued by Minerva and Hecate (GUIRAND & PIERRE, 1959/1975). The goddess Fortuna is she who brings something, in a neutral sense and plural (PITKIN, 1984; FRAKES, 1988). ‘Under Hadrian there seems to have been at work a partly conscious, partly, perhaps, unconscious instinct that ‘naturalistic’ and ‘realistic’ tendencies in art had, for the time being, gone far enough. Their function was multipurpose and featured, outside the horse races, all kinds of activities. The second occurrence of a quadriga in the Bible is the quadriga of Aminadab (Canticles VI, 12). The image of the goddess changed during the Roman Empire to a person, with a positive aura: she was the source of all good, the ‘bona dea‘ (good goddess), to be identified with Isis. There was a reawakening of a sense of the value of the Greek tradition of ‘idealism’ as embodied in the ‘idealistic’ types and motives of the art of ‘classical’ Greece’ (TOYNBEE, 1934; p. Joselyn Toynbee considered the episode of Hadrian’s imperial reign as an extension of ancient Greek history, which she divided into four periods: ————————- 1. The circus was a later architectonic development than the theater and amphitheater. ‘I went down into the garden of nuts to see the fruits of the valley, and to see whether the vine flourished, and the pomegranates budded.